Sunday, March 22, 2020

Evaluate the impact of propaganda in the Nazi regime Essay Example

Evaluate the impact of propaganda in the Nazi regime Essay Adolf Hitler and the Nazi party came to power in January 1933 and held power until the end of the Second World War in 1945. (Fulbrook 1990 p176-202) During this time of the Nazi regime, Hitler, along with his minister of propaganda, Dr Joseph Goebbels, took control of all media output, giving them one voice towards the population of Germany. (Fulbrook 1990 p182) Having control of all the media output, such as literature, art, music, radio, films, and newspapers, gave the Nazis one of their greatest weapons during their time in power an unopposed propaganda machine. (Snyder 1995 p273) Propaganda is seen as the art of persuasion, it is the ability to persuade others that your side of the story is correct. It might take the form of persuading others that your military might is too great to be challenged or that your political might within a nation is too great or popular to challenge. (Rutherford 1985 p8) The Nazis however, were more concerned with using propaganda to build the myth of Hitler, the image of him being the saviour of Germany and the myth of the Aryan German. This myth being that the pure German was the superior race through nobility of blood. (Snyder 1995 p277) To evaluate the impact of propaganda within the Nazi regime, this essay will focus on the importance, or the worth of the impact to which the propaganda had through these myths. It will focus firstly on the Hitler myth, and how Hitlers image made an impact on the German population with the use of propaganda. It will look at the radio, the impact broadcasted propaganda had when portraying this myth. It will then look at the Aryan myth, and how the youth of Germany were fed propaganda from the outset of their lives, allowing them to know nothing else but this myth. (Snyder 1995 p278) And the impact this propaganda had upon the Jewish population of Nazi Germany. We will write a custom essay sample on Evaluate the impact of propaganda in the Nazi regime specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Evaluate the impact of propaganda in the Nazi regime specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Evaluate the impact of propaganda in the Nazi regime specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer It has been suggested by Ian Kershaw in his book the Hitler myth that at the peak of Hitlers popularity nine Germans in ten were Hitler supporters, Fuhrer believers. He claims, with certainty that support for the Nazi party never approached the same levels as it did for Hitler, suggesting that the support, praise or belief for Hitler went way beyond those who thought of themselves as Nazis. He claims that Hitler embraced many who were critical of the institutions, policies, and ideology of the regime. It could be said that the impact of the Hitler myth was massive, along with the propaganda that portrayed it. The worth of the image of the Fuhrer would be priceless in providing the regime with its mass base of support. (Kershaw 1987) Hitler himself paid the greatest attention to the building of his public image. He gave great care to style and posture during speeches and other public engagements. He was keen to avoid any hint of human failings, as in his refusal to be seen wearing spe ctacles or participate in any form of sport or other activity in which he might not excel and which might make him an object of amusement rather than admiration. Even his celibacy was portrayed by Goebbels as a sacrifice of personal happiness for the welfare of the nation. (Bessel 1987 p41-45) Hitler worked wonders for his own image as the fuhrer, but it could be argued that a more dynamic impact was to come from radio broadcasts. (Snyder 1995 p279) Dr Goebbels considered the radio to be his number one weapon in transmitting propaganda. In 1933 Goebbels appointed Eugen Hadamowsky as head of the chamber of radio, and on the 16th August of the same year, Hadamowsky issued a report on what had been accomplished in a little more than a month. (Snyder 1995 p279) The report read, We National Socialists must show enough dynamism and enthusiasm coupled with lightening speed to impress Germany and the whole world. Party comrade Dr Goebbels ordered me on July 13th 1933, to purge the German radio of influence opposed to our cause. I can now report that the work has been done thoroughly. Throughout the day and evening the German public would hear broadcasts portraying the fuehrer as the nations most precious asset and would describe the Nazi way of life as desirable. It could be argued that the propaganda used by the Nazis was so constant and unopposed, that it effectively brainwashed a nation into believing what the Nazis wanted them to be lieve. (Snyder 1995 p279) It had the biggest part of a nation believing that Hitler, the Fuhrer, was a godlike figure. He was seen in this way by most of the people beneath him. Everyone owed allegiance to him and he always got his way. The phrase The Fuhrer knows best became a common saying throughout Germany. This ingenious Nazi propaganda had turned the mild Adolf Hitler into the fuhrer of Germany, who was now seen by the people of Germany, as the saviour of Germany. (Kershaw 1987) As well as being an ingenious form of propaganda, it could be argued that the Hitler Myth increased Hitlers confidence too much, and made him too powerful, forcing him into decisions which he may not have other wise made with a little more opposition or a little less popularity. It could be said that Hitler started out with a plan of action, It has been said that he wrote this plan in his book Mein Kampf, (Watt 1974) yet it would be difficult to believe that even Hitler himself would have believed that his ideas would actually become reality. Hitlers huge platform of popularity made his own power position ever more invincible; it provided the basis for the extreme ways in the Third Reich. It allowed for Hitlers personal ideas and obsessions to become translated into a reachable reality. It could be suggested that the mass adulation actually caused Hitler to believe he was indeed superhuman, and that he would lead a pure German Aryan race. (Watt 1974 p258) The Aryan myth and Nazi ideology was injected into society from an early age. Every German child would say Heil Hitler throughout the day, everyday, every time they would greet someone in the street, or at school, or when they would greet their parents. (Ayer, 1995, p144) This greeting, accompanied by the raising of the right arm, high up in to the air as a salute to the fuhrer of Germany could be said to have had a great impact on every child, and possibly most adults. (Wiesenthal, 1997) It could easily be said that the children of Germany, were seen as a major propaganda weapon of the Nazis them-selves. Guided by the Nazis, they would install their rules and beliefs from the outset of a childs life. (Wiesenthal, 1997) When a child would leave the house to head off for school, with the words Heil Hitler upon his or her lips, he or she would possibly walk down a street covered with the swastika flag, the Nazi emblem, hanging from almost every window of every other house in the street . (Ayer, 1995 p144) Once at school the German child would soak up the propaganda that was forced upon them. All aspects of Nazi ideology, and in particularly the preaching of anti-Semitism, that being the hatred towards the Jews, and the need for a pure German population, the need for an Aryan population would be the everyday routine. (Gutman, 1995) It could be argued that there was no other condition wherever Nazis were in power; and in Germany at that time, they did rule everywhere. Their supremacy over the German child, as they learnt, ate, slept, and grew up, would be almost complete. (Wiesenthal, 1997) The children of Germany would grow into Nazi teenagers; join such groups as the Jungvolk, the junior division of the Hitler youth or the jungmadel for the young girls of Germany, where they would endure more preaching of the Nazi ways. (Wiesenthal, 1997) In these youth organisations, the young Aryan teenagers would be fed with more Nazi propaganda, in the form of enjoyment; they would bond together, wear the brown shirt uniform of the Hitler youth and preach the might of the fuhrer to younger children. These organisations had something for everyone, but were open to only the pure German children. (Snyder 1995 p187) Once the teenagers had reached the age of fourteen, the young women would then join the bund deutscher madel, which was better known as the league of German girls where the young women would be prepared for marriage and motherhood. (Snyder 1995 p45-46) The young boys however would join the Hitler Jugend, more commonly referred to as the Hitler youth, all the way to the age of twenty-one. Here the young men would be gradually drawn away from their families, with a routine covering the entire week. Every free hour was monopolized, and the parents dared not object to this kind of conformity. The failure of any boy to join the Hitler youth was regarded as a violation of civic responsibility. (Snyder 1995 p161-162) These youngsters, who lived more and more with their comrades, and with the impact of the Nazi propaganda, would gradually turn into young German adults, thinking and breathing only in the ways of an Aryan Nazi. But not everyone in Germany fitted this picture of perfection of the Aryan, and not all children had the preaching of Nazi ways. (Snyder 1995 p277-278) Due to the mass propaganda surrounding the superior race or Aryan myth, the Nazis saw to it that a euthanasia policy was to come into effect to deal with the unsuitable children of Germany. Any child with a disease, such as idiocy or mongolism, or any deformity, in particular the absence of limbs, or spina bifida would come under this policy and would be subjected to death. (Rees 1997 p81) The youth were also picked out due to the Aryan myth. If they had a bad family background, and the Nazis classed them as delinquent, then they would be forcibly sterilized as teenagers. This sterilization of teenagers and the euthanasia policy would effectively, in the eyes on the Nazis, cleanse the future German Aryan race. (Rees 1997 p83) The Jewish population also fell foul to the Aryan myth. The Nazis saw the Jewish population as a pollutant, or bacteria, which was poisoning and infecting the healthy Aryan stock. (Snyder 1995 p201) In 1941 after Germany had invaded the Soviet Union, (Snyder 199 5 p84) Hitler and the Nazis saw the Jews in the way of victory, and came up with a final solution for ridding Europe of the Jews. It could be said that this final solution was to see the process of the Jews move from exclusion to persecution, then to expulsion, and ultimately to annihilation through the Holocaust. (Snyder 1995 p84) The Holocaust was used to describe Hitlers attempt to exterminate all European Jews, and the Nazis succeeded in physical destroying approximately six million Jews in Europe during their time in power. (Snyder 1995 p168-169) It is in no doubt that the so-called propaganda stunts of the Hitler myth and the Aryan myth caused a massive impact in the Nazi regime. Propaganda set the direction of young peoples lives within the regime and was one of the major causes of millions of deaths. It could easily be said that because the Hitler myth and the Aryan myth had such a big impact on the people of Germany, it actually led to an over positive impact on Hitler himself, or even a negative impact. It could be argued that his over confidence, because of propaganda actually led to Hitlers eventual downfall due to his own belief that he was superhuman and invincible. It could be argued that he made decisions because of his stature, a stature that was glorified over and over again through propaganda and with no opposition. Hitler could effectively do whatever he wanted to do, therefore he did do too much, and he eventually did the unthinkable in the Holocaust. The burning question would be that if the propaganda did no t make such a big impact on Hitler himself, would he have taken such unbelievable actions has he did?

Thursday, March 5, 2020

What Is the PSAT Test Everything You Need to Know

What Is the PSAT Test Everything You Need to Know SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Most students know what the SAT is,but what is the PSAT? Sure, it's got"SAT" in its name, but is the PSAT actually connected to the SAT? More importantly, how does the PSAT test work and what is its purpose? In this article,we’ll answer your most pressingquestion: what is thePSAT test?We'll start by explaining the meaning of PSAT and whystudents typically elect to take it. We'll then go over the logistics of the test and how PSAT scoring works. Finally, we'll finish with a brief discussion about how important PSAT scores actually are for students. What Is the PSAT? How Is It Connected to the SAT? To start, what is the PSAT test? Cosponsored by the College Board and National Merit Scholarship Corporation (NMSC), the Preliminary SAT/National Merit Scholarship Qualifying Test (NMSQT)- often shortened to PSAT- is a standardized testtargeting 10th and 11th graders in the US. Every year, approximately3.5 million students take the PSAT test at various high schools. But why take it at all? As it stands, the PSAT is heavily connected to the SAT.One of the test's primary purposes is to act as a precursor to the SAT- as the name suggests, as an SAT practice test. Thus, thePSAT and SAT heavilymirror each other in regard tocontent, structure, and even scoring. But the two tests aren't identical. Here are some majordifferences between the PSAT and SAT: The SAT hasan optional Essay section, whereas the PSAT does not The PSAT is slightly easier than the SAT There are fewer questions on the PSAT than there are on the SAT Now, let's jump back to the"NMSQT" part of the full PSAT name. In addition to being a preparatory test for the SAT, the PSAT is a qualifying test for the National Merit Scholarship Program. In other words, PSAT scores determine students' eligibility for National Merit scholarships.Each year the top 1% of 11th-grade PSAT takers becomeSemifinalists. Of these, about 7,500 go on to win scholarship money. Finally, what about the PSAT 10 and PSAT 8/9? The main purpose of these two tests is to prepare students for the PSAT/NMSQT and eventually the SAT. Nearly identical to the PSAT/NMSQT, the PSAT 10 is only offered in the spring and is specifically geared toward 10th graders. As a result,the PSAT 10 is slightly easier than the PSAT/NMSQT. Additionally, because only 10th graders can take the PSAT 10, this test cannotqualify you for National Merit. The PSAT 8/9, on the other hand, targets even younger folks- you guessed it: 8th and 9th graders- and is administeredin the fall and spring. Unlike both the PSAT 10 and PSAT/NMSQT, the PSAT 8/9 uses a different scoring scale and is both shorter and easier than the PSAT 10. Why Do Students Take the PSAT? 10th and 11th graders take the PSAT primarily forthe following three reasons: To practice for the SAT:One of the most common reasons students, especially juniors, take the PSAT is to get familiar with the layout and content of the SAT, which is often required for college admission. The PSAT provides students with the opportunity to get a feel for the SAT, and helps them identify potential strengths and weaknesses. To secure a National Merit distinction or scholarship:The other major reason students take the PSAT is to try to win a National Merit scholarship. Each year about 1.6 million juniors enter the National Merit competition viathe PSAT. Of these test takers 16,000 will become Semifinalists, and of these Semifinalists 15,000 will become Finalists. In the end,7,500 entrants will each win a $2,500 scholarship along with the (extremely prestigious) distinction of National Merit Scholar. To prepare for a second attempt at the PSAT (if taking it as a sophomore): The final reason students take the PSAT is to practice for the PSAT as sophomores before taking it again as juniors. Although sophomores aren’t eligible for National Merit,taking the PSAT earlycanincrease your shot at getting a high PSAT score- and a coveted National Merit scholarship- later on. One thing should be noted, though: at some high schools, the PSAT is mandatory for certain grade levels or groups of students. This means that some studentswill take the PSAT simply because they have to. Even if the test is required by your school, your PSAT score will never affect your GPA or your chance of getting into college. Bonus: Aiming for a National Merit Scholarship? If you're not sure you can self-study your way to a qualifying PSAT score, you'll love our PSAT prep program, PrepScholar. We designed our program to learn your strengths and weaknesses through advanced statistics and customize your prep to be as effective as possible for you. When you start with PrepScholar, you’ll take a diagnostic that will determine your weaknesses in over forty PSAT skills. PrepScholar then creates a study program specifically customized for you. To improve each skill, you’ll take focused lessons dedicated to each skill, with over 20 practice questions per skill. This will train you for your specific area weaknesses, so your time is always spent most effectively to raise your score. We also force you to focus on understanding your mistakes and learning from them. If you make the same mistake over and over again, we'll call you out on it. There’s no other prep system out there that does it this way, which is why we get better score results than any other program on the market. Check it out today with a 5-day free trial: Where and When Is the PSAT? Unlike the SAT, you do notget to choose your test center; rather, you register for and take the PSAT test at your own high school (or a nearbyschool, should your school not offer it). If you’re uncertain whether your school will be administering the PSAT, or if you'd like to look for a list of schools in your area that will be administering it, use the College Board’s school search tool. Sowhen can you take the PSAT? The PSAT is administered every autumn, usually starting in early or mid-October, on three dates: A primary date A Saturday date An alternate date Again, you donot get to choose when you take the test. Instead, your school will decide on which date it will administer the PSAT. By far the vast majority of schools hold the PSATon the primary date. To confirmyour school's PSAT test date, consult your counselor. Here is the anticipated 2019 official PSAT testing schedule: Primary Date Saturday Date Alternate Date Wednesday, October 16, 2019 Saturday, October 19, 2019 Wednesday, October 30, 2019 Source: The College Board How Much Does the PSAT Cost? The PSAT costs $16, butthis price varies depending on the school. Some schools might cover all or part of this fee, making the test free for students, whereas others might require students to pay more so asto compensate for the hiring of test proctors. Your school (or the school at which you're taking the PSAT test) should give youinstructions on how to pay for the testand by when you'll need to submit your payment. Most schools request PSAT payments from students by around September. Note that you will neverneed to pay the College Board directly (that’s theschool’s job!). If you can’t afford the test fee, you might be eligible for a PSAT fee waiver. Feewaivers are typically available to low-income 11th graders only. To see whether you qualify for a waiver, consult your counselor. Only schools- not students- can request fee waivers from the College Board. What Does the PSAT Cover? The PSAT, which underwent a redesign in 2015 to accompany the 2016 SAT redesign, is extremely similar to the SAT in bothform and content. There are three sections on the PSAT: Reading, Writing and Language (hereafter "Writing"), and Math. (AsI mentioned, there's no optional Essay section on the PSAT.)Each section appears only once on the PSAT in a predetermined order: (1) Reading, (2) Writing, and (3) Math. Similar to theSAT, the PSAT Math section consists of two subsections: a No Calculator subsection on which you may not use a calculator, and a Calculator subsection on which you may use a (pre-approved) calculator. Most questions on the PSAT are multiple choice. The only exceptions are the Math section's grid-in questions. For these questions, you must come up with and write in your own answers. According to the College Board, 17% of PSAT Math, oreight questions, are grid-ins. Belowis the general breakdown of the PSAT. You can see when eachsection appears on the test, how much time you’ll havefor each section, and how many questions there are.Foran even better idea of what’ll be on the PSAT, I suggest looking atanofficial PSAT practice test. PSAT Section Order on Test Time Allotted # of Questions Reading 1 60 mins 47 Writing and Language 2 35 mins 44 Math No Calculator 3 25 mins 17 Math Calculator 4 45 mins 31 How Is the PSAT Scored? The total PSAT score range is 320-1520 in 10-point increments.This score consists of your Math score and your Evidence-Based Reading and Writing (EBRW) score, both of which are scored on a scale of160-760.(EBRW is a combination of the Reading and Writing sections.) These two section scores are actually your scaled, or equated, scores.Buthow do you getthese scores? On the PSAT, you start off with three raw scores, one each for Reading, Writing, and Math.A raw score is equal tothe number of questions you answered correctly. You do not lose any points for incorrect answers! Your raw scores for each section are then converted into test scores on a scale of 8-38through a special equating process described in our guide to PSAT scoring. It should also be noted here that thesetest scores, when combined and multiplied by 2, give you yourSelection Index score, which the NMSC uses to determine eligibility for the National Merit competition. Your Math test score is multiplied by 20 to give you a scaled Math score out of 760. Similarly, your Reading and Writing scores are combined and multiplied by 10 to give you a single scaled EBRW score (also out of 760). In addition to section scores, you’ll be givensubscores and cross-test scores. These scores are the same as those on the SAT and indicate your mastery of specific skills. Subscores have a score range of1-15,whereas cross-test scores have a score range of8-38. Here is a list of the sevensubscores on the PSAT test: EBRW Command of Evidence Words in Context Expression of Ideas Standard English Conventions Math Heart of Algebra Problem Solving and Data Analysis Passport to Advanced Math And here are the twocross-test scores on the PSAT: Analysis in History/Social Studies Analysis in Science At present,the average PSAT score is 1014 for 11th graders and 934 for 10th graders. A good PSAT score for you, though, will depend on what your PSAT goals are. If youhope to qualify for National Merit, you’ll need a score thatplaces you in the top 1% of test takers foryour state. A good PSAT score could also be any score in the75th percentile or higher, or simply any score similartowhat you'll need on the SAT to get into the colleges you're planning on applying to. But in the end, does your PSAT score really mean anything? Does Your PSAT Score Actually Matter? The truth is that your PSAT score is far less important than your SAT (or ACT) score is. This is mainly because the PSAT isn't used for college admissions. Moreover, your PSAT score has no effect on your GPA, so if you really don’t want to take the test, you don't actually need to (unless it’s mandatory at your school). The only major function of PSAT scores is to win scholarship money and the honor of National Merit Scholar. But unless you’re actively aiming for National Merit status, your PSAT score isn't actually that important. Nevertheless, if you’re hoping to eventually secure a high SAT score, approaching the PSAT with diligence will be critical for your success. Why? You see, PSAT scores directly translate into SAT scores.So a 1400 on the PSAT equals a 1400 on the SAT, a 900 equals a 900, and so on. In short, your PSAT score acts as a predictor of your SAT score. Of course, your PSAT score doesn’t take into account any additional time you’ll spend studying for the SAT, so it's not likely going to be 100% accurate. But whatyour PSAT score does offer is a clear idea as towhere you’re currently scoring and how much of an improvement you’ll need to make in order to hityour SAT goal score. Simply put,you can use yourPSAT score as your baseline SAT score,making it a fairly useful (and thusimportant) score to know. Summary: What Is the PSAT? Is It Important? The PSAT/NMSQT, or PSAT, is a practice test for the SAT that's offered every fall for10th and 11th graders. Italso serves as a qualifying test for the National Merit Scholarship Program, which awards $2,500 scholarships annually to high-scoring 11th graders. You must register for thePSAT test at your own school (or a nearby school) and take it on the test date chosenby your school. The testfee is $16, but this cost varies depending on the school. Fee waivers are usuallyavailable to low-income juniors. The overall structure and content of the PSAT is similar to that of the SAT.There are three sections (Reading, Writing, and Math) that combine to give you a score between 320 and 1520. PSAT scores directly correspond toSAT scores,meaning a score on the PSAT will always equalthe same score on the SAT. Ultimately, how important your PSAT score is depends on what you planto do with it.If you want toqualify for National Meritor eventually get a high SAT score, it's critical that you get a good PSAT score. But if not, your PSAT score won't hold much significance for you or anyone else. In any case,your PSAT score will always be far less important than your SAT (or ACT) score will be! What’s Next? Want to learn more about thePSAT?Check out our expert guide to the PSATfor an extensive overview of everything you'll need to know about the test and what's on it. Confused about PSAT scores?Our in-depth analysis of the PSAT score rangetakes aclose look athow the PSAT is scored andexplains howyou can usethis knowledge to your advantage. Readyto register for the PSAT?Follow our step-by-step guide to learn how the PSAT registration process works as well as how it differs from theSAT registrationprocess. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Lab report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 5

Lab Report Example The initial angle’s complementary values result in the same range but the heights are different. 45o is the projection angle with the maximum range. For this experiment, the velocity is still constant in the x-direction (vox = vx = constant). The only difference is that the velocity has a y-component (vo = (vox2 + voy2)Â ½ ). For both experiments, the initial velocity is the same (vox = vo cos q and voy = vo sin q). To find the motion’s equation, Δy = v0y t + Â ½ a t2, t was solved: There is a significant difference between the theoretical range and the experimental range. Errors could have occurred due to incorrect readings because of parallax and calculation errors because of rounding off. These experiments, despite having quite evident errors, the angles with the highest range are 400 and 450. The experiment further emphasized the independence of x- and y-components in projectile motion (Serway, Vuille & Faughn,

Monday, February 3, 2020

Higher Education Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Higher Education - Essay Example transferring knowledge, skills and cultural values to the students, higher education teachers are indirectly keeping young and unemployed individuals off the streets (Stephens & Leach, 1998, p. 203). In general, each of the school teacher(s) have different set of multiple roles which they need to satisfy on a daily basis. Because of their unique function within an educational institution, functionalists may sometimes conclude that the presence of certain school policies and institutions can be dysfunctional for most of the teachers within a given educational institution. As explained by Appelrouth and Edles (2008, p. 386), the occurrence of dysfunctionality is possible because â€Å"they are functional for a more powerful social group or the social system itself†. Functionalists strongly suggest that the main function of higher education teachers is to provide better occupational opportunities for the unemployed students in the long-run. Upon analyzing the functionalist theory of education, it is the students who function as the receiver of the transferred knowledge, skills and cultural values from the school teachers. However, this theory is not applicable when it comes to analyzing the relationship between teachers and students in higher education. Conflict Theory Conflict theory view education as something that â€Å"reflects other inequalities within a given society† (Andersen & Taylor, 2011, p. 348). Because of the presence of racial, class and gender discrimination, not all students are able to receive equal rights to education. Furthermore, conflict perspective in higher education also suggest that the process of tracking down teachers’ ability to deliver good quality teaching based on the prescribed school curriculum also contributes to the development of... This essay stresses that based on symbolic interaction theory, social interaction between teachers and students within an educational institution is possible and necessary when it comes to individual and group successes. As compared to functionalist theory, symbolic interaction theory view human beings within a given society as something that is â€Å"not an established structure but as individuals who are trying to meet their life conditions and expectations†. Based on the core perspectives in contemporary sociological theory, the concept of a structural functionalism is more on the non-rational collective side whereas the orientation of symbolic interaction theory is more on non-rational and individualistic side. Considering the fact that symbolic interaction theory heavily relies on the actions made by the school teachers and students, this particular theory can be more effective and applicable in terms of analyzing how the relationship between the school teachers and stude nts in higher education work. This report makes a conclusion that as compared to functionalist and conflict theories, symbolic interactionism theory is the best applicable theory when it comes to analyzing the relationship between teachers and students in higher education. Unlike the functionalist and conflict theories in sociology, symbolic interactionism theory does not focus on analyzing the structure or functionality or conflicts in a given educational institution but only with regards to how each of the stakeholders who are trying to meet their life conditions and expectations as human beings.

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Effects of family arrangements on child development

Effects of family arrangements on child development Describe cultural variations in family arrangements and critically examine psychological research on the effects of these family arrangements on childrens development. Marriage is the basis of households that are formed; a neolocal household consists of a married couple creating a new home. One main family type arrangement is the nuclear family. Lee (1987) this arrangement consists of three main positions. The members being within the household sets a presence, so the number of members does not make a nuclear family more compelling. In a patrilocal family, the new couple join the house of the husband and form a new home. In a matrilocal family the home is set up in the wifes birth home. Matri and Partilocal families are also extended/joint families; this is where members of different generations also live in the house. The older generations uphold a power role and are highly respected. The joint/ extended families usually consist of three or more generations in one house. However, there are non- residential extended families this arrangement is where they live near to the home and communal activities and eat with the other household. Extended family arrangements has its advantages such as being supportive in hard times, however there are disadvantages such as them becoming interfering in the independence and restrict the other younger members life Goodwin, Adatia et al 1997. Family structures are mostly dependant on social and economic circumstances as well as cultural values. Joint families are more likely to see having a bigger family as an important source of secure labour and importance. This is mostly deemed to be important when the wage labour is not the principal economic form. A hierarchical and authoritarian structure is often developed gradually within a joint family structure; this is in order to operate in a smooth manner, and to stress obedience and respect for authority and family reputation. Stropes-Roe and Cochrane, 1989. Extended family living situations have often been exaggerated; this was noticed by Goode 1963, when he researched family systems. An example of this is from family structures in China, whereby the family structure was under attack as the newer generations saw this structure within the household as a negative issue, as they stated that à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦.the traditional family is being wiped out without being replacedà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦. Levy 1949. In the rural areas of China the extended family arrangement is becoming extinct, as the census revealed that the nuclear family is becoming a more common arrangement, reasons for this change may stem from economical reasons, as high mortality rates have increased in the poorer regions due to financial issues which made it difficult for families to extend their homes to accommodate for more people. However, as this change was occurring in China a new form of living developed, this was known the stem family. Stem families consist of parents, their unmarried children and one married child with a partner and children. This arrangement suited children living with their parents due to the lack of housing made available to new buyers and the newly married couple may take advantage of the free accommodation whilst saving to buy further accommodation and the babysitting facilities whilst both parents attend to work. However, instead of contributing more to the elders within an extended family, the young would now benefit more and taking more than they are returning Tsui 1989. This shows that Chinese families can adapt very well in order to suit the socio-political conditions and the environment within the modern family. Overall this demonstrates the functional value of family which is to provide solidarity and material support in difficult times Yang 1988. Also like China the extended family arrangement is rare and only dominant amongst large landowners as they are able to support their large families. Research carried out from Al-Thakeb 1985 found that the extended family has never been the main family structure amongst families living in Arab cultures. This was found by studying nine different Arab countries. Although Al-Thakeb stated that the extended family has never been the main family form in Arab cultures. Due to the family being an independent wedded family this does not mean that the family bonds are weak. As in Arab countries it has been known that the relationship between family members is strong, due to living in close areas to their brothers and sisters, so this arrangement has its rewards as economic cooperation and emotional support is available for the family members. Within the Iran households, housing is a major problem which results in extended families being reduced in size, whilst intensive migration among the rural population has led to the weakening of larger household groups. In turn has led to the separation of extended families, whereby new couples leave their parents and form their own household separately. Meanwhile in Japan a different concept has been applied within household arrangements. The Japanese family structure is like the American family household arrangement; a nuclear setting. Economical reasons are adapted within families here as well, as the retired parents are more likely to live with their children due to economic reasons. However due to many cultural variations in family arrangements, childrens development in society may differ; although there are some similarities as well. The difference in how parents socialise with their children, affects the childs socialisation on childrens development. There are many different parenting styles that are adopted. Steinberg et al 1989 put forward suggestions of three different parenting styles. The first one being psychological autonomy which is the degree to which parents encourage their children to be independent. The second description is parental involvement this is where parents are actively involved in their childs lives. Lastly, the third style is behavioural control this is measured by the degree of how much the parents try to control their childs behaviour and activities. There are two main types of societies within cultures, one being collectivist: this is where the society is involved with the communitys life. The community encourages obedience to authority. In collectivist societies obligation is highly ritualised. The family arrangements that tend to stem from these societies are extended/ joint families mainly. On the other hand there are individualistic societies whereby children are encouraged to develop their own opinions. The family arrangement that mainly stems from this society is the nuclear family. Research into comparing the different societys views on parental upbringing. Larano 1997 conducted research in Canada. Children from different ethnic minorities a list of individualistic and collectivist activities and a parental monitoring scale. The results found showed that collectivist children perceived their parents as being more controlling and less involved with them than individualistic children. This research suggests that the childre n may have come to these conclusions as they live a particular life, for example if a child lived the collectivist extended family life, then it could be argued that the child may perceive the other way of doing things as the better way as it differs from the norm they have to abide by. In China there is continuing evidence for strong parental nurturance and support even when the child has grown up, although the Chinese parenting style is largely authoritarian and involves high levels of regulation from parents in order to ensure proper behaviour. This doesnt mean that children fail to develop autonomy, but may mean that they do so at a later age than children in the more individualistic cultures was found by Schneider et al 1997. One comparison that has been made into the difference between how a child is brought up in cultural difference within families is between Japanese and Israeli families. In Japan children are strongly bonded to their families, with the Japanese mother keen to harmonise her needs with those of her child, which shows the family arrangement between mother and child to be an important one, with the child growing up with a close bond with its mother. Japanese children are constantly in contact with their mothers and are rarely left alone Tobin 1992. Babies are often carried around on their mothers backs and there is a constant non-verbal interaction between parent and child. In comparison the Israeli mothers put forward a more independent upbringing style, and favour the idea of children being independent and self sufficient. As a result of this the Israeli mother may encourage the child ability to be alone as an example of their childs emotional independence, while the Japanese mother may value the child development of social relationships. In Britain different ethnic groups have different attitudes towards the socialisation of their children and their development. Asian families tend to be based with an extended family arrangement. Asian families and in particular Muslim, parents are highly protective of their daughters, fearing British societys drugs problems and its undue emphasis on sex Singh Ghuman 1994. In some cultures polygamous marriages are accepted, this is where a person may be married to more than one partner. On the other hand in most cultures monogamous families are more commonly recognised; one single partner. However, it would raise the question as to whether such a family arrangement affects the development of children Alean Al-Krenawi et al investigated this matter. 146 participants were involved in the study; they consisted of children who were involved in either polygamous family or a monogamous family. The children were tested through a questionnaire which was later analysed. The children from monogamous families had higher levels of learning achievement than the children from polygamous families, which in turn meant that the monogamous children adjusted to school framework better, unlike the polygamous children as much. This shows that these children suffer a disadvantage from living within such a large family, as they experience an overall educational disadvantage and social difficulties as well. The Results also showed that the conflict rating of the children from a large family background; polygamous had a higher rating. It was also found that the fathers level of education tended to be inversely correlated with family size in terms of both number of children and number of wives. These results show that due to these learning difficulties children are faced from living in such situations, that now the teachers my become aware of such problems, as it may be assumed that children from polygamous families may drop out of school early, and may be more at risk of falling for bad habits such as drugs and theft. It was stated that the problem should be overcome by focussing on the recognition of polygamy as a particular risk factor, along with the expectation that over time higher levels of paternal education may well lead to smaller families and more attention to the emotional and social needs of the children. Due to the findings issues within the polygamous families such as tension caused from other wives and step siblings, could be worked on, as it may be an issue affecting the childrens development. It could be argued that the wives could perhaps be encouraged to perceive one another as partners rather than opponents, and in turn the half siblings could also foll ow this principle to help improve the overall family relationship within the household. However there are limitations to this research such as, individual differences have not been considered as some children may just not be very into school life, and that the failure to achieve well isnt to do with the family arrangement at home. Another limitation is that the polygamous families that were researched only had two wives, so it cannot be widely generalised to polygamous families as they differ in sizes, therefore it cannot be stated that even larger polygamous families have a bigger affect on childrens development. A further limitation is that the study was based on a sample of one race, which again makes it harder to generalise the results to other races. With all these limitations it must not be forgotten that the research still shows us that living arrangements and differences such as monogamous and polygamous families do impact the children educational development at school to some extent. Nuclear and extended families affect childrens development as some research has suggested that these living arrangements may cause some psychological stress in childhood. An examination of lifestyles within the inner cities of non-industrial countries highlights the changes in family life this was noted by Abdel Rahim Cederblad, 1980 An example of this is from Sudan families as they traditionally consist of three or more generations, with siblings living side by side and sharing domestic duties and economic responsibilities. Marriages occur early and are arranged by parents; they are frequently between cousins or other family relations Abdelrahman Morgan, 1987.Authority in these extended households usually rests with the grandfather. The grandmother plays a central role in child care and the transmission of cultural identity to her grandchildren. In turn, the extended family is embedded within the wider communal structure of the tribe. This type of social structure encourages conformity to standards of conduct which are seen to be acceptable according to tradition and so promotes social stability. At the same time, gives a sense of communal responsibility for the upbringing of children. Up until the age of weaning a mother has the main responsibility for care. After weaning the responsibility for care and discip line is shared within both the immediate family, and to a lesser extent among the other responsible adults living with the immediate family. In the research conducted by Abdel Rahim Cederblad, 1980 the relation between emotional and social development and family structure in the Sudanese capital, Khartoum, was examined. Children between the ages of 4 and 9 living in extended and nuclear families were compared on mothers ratings of a range of childhood problems. Analysis revealed that children in nuclear families had more conduct, emotional, and sleep problems, poorer self-care, and were more likely to be over dependent than those living in extended families. They were also less likely to be breast fed, to be weaned later, and to have grandmothers involved in child care. Linear multiple regression revealed that, of these 3 childcare factors, grandmothers involvement was the strongest predictor of normal social and emotional adjustment. The possible protective characteristics of the extended family are discussed in relation to the importance of the grandmother as maternal advisor, social support, and socialization agent. However this research does face some limitations such as results of the study may be influenced by factors not studied here. First, it is possible that mothers reports were affected by some systematic bias in reporting. Although both groups reported spending the same amount of time with their children, reporting bias may be due to differences in the mental health of nuclear and extended family mothers Lancaster, Prior, Adler,1989 or variation in the standards of conduct deemed acceptable by them Sonuga-Barke, Minocha, Taylor, Sandberg. These questions centre on the relation between actual deviance and parental perceptions and cannot be addressed without direct observation of the childs behaviour. Second, the relation between child development and family structure reported in the study might be mediated by the effects of stressful life events, such as migration. In a recent study. El Farouk (1991) examined the makeup of a representative sample of the large (34% of the total population; Population Census Office, 1989) migrant population living in Khartoum. More than half of the 266 migrant families studied included three generations. This is similar to the proportion found in the non migrant population and suggests that migration would not selectively affect childhood adjustment in the nuclear families in the present study. The findings imply that the meaning and protective significance of factors is conditional on cultural context as well as developmental status and history. Global ideals of human conduct operating within different cultures directly influence the meaning and significance of personal and intergenerational relationships within families. The impact of family life on child development is mediated by a set of beliefs about the extent to which a particular family structure is consistent with those ideals. In Sudanese culture, as in many traditional societies, social life is governed by ideals of communal interdependence, intergenerational harmony, and social conformity motivated by feelings of collective responsibility and filial piety. In extended families, the physical proximity, emotional intimacy, and (grand-) parental authority are consistent with these ideals. So far the issues that have been mentioned are that family arrangements can affect children development in educational aspects such as the childrens performance at school, and the differences between nuclear and extended family arrangements in regards to development. Another aspect that some research has found that family arrangements may affect is the nutrition and physical growth of children in their development this was researched by Tinkew and DeJong 2004. They looked into the influence of household structure and resource dilution features. The study aimed to compare the impact of different types of household structures such as single parent, multiple parents, extended and cohabitating, and the influence this had on childrens nutrition. They also aimed to investigate whether household structure and household resources interact to affect child nutrition. The results were collated from the Jamaica 1996 Living Standards Measurement Study Survey and other sources. The findings showed that living in a single parent household and cohabitating household increases the odds of stunting for children. The analysis also indicates that children in single parent families with low income and have siblings are more likely to have low height for age, as well as low income extended families with siblings. The key policy implication that is shown through this study is that household structure is important for understanding childrens nutritional outcomes in the Caribbean. This research was beneficial as it highlighted that household arrangements does have some impact on childrens development in regards to health issues. However, it can be criticised as the findings would be more reliable if a larger sample was used and the use of longitudinal data was used instead of cross sectional data, as this would be useful for capturing changes over time in childrens nutritional statuses as well as changes in household structures. Longitudinal data would be especially useful for understanding how changes in household structure can influence child nutrition given the variability of households in the Caribbean, and other changes in composition across the developmental cycle of the household. It has been suggested that further research should also include measures of parental time allocations which would improve the understanding of how time used as a resource is used to affect child nutrition. Household structures effects could work through a variety of mechanisms, and a careful study of these processes is needed especially with regard to future research on this issue in the Caribbean context. In regards to whet her this research is useful, it shows us that there can be some cultural family arrangement issues that are proven to impact the nutritional development of children showing us that there arent just psychological differences; which most research suggests there is. Overall it could be suggested that there are many cultural variations within many different family arrangements. However, it is not completely clear whether the family arrangement directly affects the childs development for reasons such as every child and their development is different and we therefore cannot pin point what factors specifically affect development. Other factors such as sexual orientation, wealth of families, social status and class are all areas that could be researched further to help link the affects within child development. 3215

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Mt. Everest

The Choice Should there be a permanent base camp? KJ December 19th, 2011 Should there be a permanent base camp? The choice for a permanent base camp has not been made because the are plenty of good reasons why there should be one. On the other hand there are also plenty of bad reasons why there shouldn't be one. Though the council has not decided completely there have been a few rumors that they might start building in 2014 or 2015. This may become an issue with the people that live in Nepal. The Argument The Good Things The good things about this settlement is that everyone can have comfortable hot showers and a heating system to keep them warm. This is also good because there is a possibility that if it is built then it could lower the chances of polluting the area (more than it already is). That is if recycling bins and trash cans are added. The Bad Things Some of the bad things about the project is that it can cause more pollution instead of lowering the chances of it. The building if not stable enough could collapse because the base camp is a moving glacier. Building this would cost more than $700,000 (not including the cost for electricity and supplies). That would make a sum of about $3,000,000 for when it is first built and and about $2,300,000 for all the supplies and electricity. That probably does not even include the cost of shipping. which would add about $50,000 every time a load of stuff is shipped there. The Problem The problem is that Mount Everest is a moving glacier with an altitude of 17598ft. Also this permanent camp could cause even more pollution than there already is. This is also very costly considering that it is very far from any major towns and it takes several days of trekking to get there, so building a settlement will be difficult and expensive. Also the altitude makes living there very difficult, the people who work in the camp would have to go back to a lower altitude every week or so. Along with that operating and sustaining the camp would be extremely expensive, supplies would take very long to be delivered. The Solution The solution would be to find a way to make it less costly and more convenient for both the people that work there and the guests. The End Thanks for reading

Friday, January 10, 2020

A Turning Point

Walking past the corridor, I saw a student being punished, and I couldn't help but be filled with nostalgia, bad memories. I too was once caught up in such an embarrassing situation, being punished and disgraced in front of my entire class just because of my â€Å"brilliant† idea which went wrong. While I was in high school Year 10, like everyone else, I was in a celebrative mood jumping for joy, as it was the last week of school before the long school break. However, our laughter and happiness came to an abrupt halt as the form teacher of our class Mr Mann entered the classroom. The entire class groaned and became tense on seeing the stack of red report cards he was carrying. My stomach churned as I already knew that I did not excel in my exam, having failed most of my science subjects as I really detest being in a science stream class instead of arts. Reluctantly, I dragged my heavy feet to the front and took my report card when my name was called out. † I knew it,† I said and gave out a loud sigh when I saw my far from impressive results. Mostly were inked in red. Old fashion type of school but yes, my teacher insisted on our parent's signature on the report card for every exam and I could smell the trouble burning awaiting me at home. I knew I would be punished therefore, overwhelmed with fear, I came out with this â€Å"brilliant† idea which is to forge out my parent's signature. â€Å"Everything should be fine if I play my cards right,† I said to myself. Next day came D-day, trying to stop trembling like a leaf while handing up my report card, Mr Mann glared at me. Everything was over when he twitched his eyebrows and questioned me, I was caught red handed. He firmly admonished me in front of my whole class. Drama was unfolding before me just like in TV shows. He was hell bent on making a lesson to be learnt to the entire class out of me. â€Å"Well, do you have anything to say?† asked Mr Mann, in his mild and calm manner. I blushed and stood sheepishly as my classmates roared in laughter merciless. Helplessly I stared at the floor fully embarrassed, with eyes filled with tears hoping it to end as soon as possible. Yet that wasn't the end of the horror, my parents were called and now it is a total game over for me. Well, I had to face the music. My parents are loving and kind but once in a blue moon, like a volcano, they erupt! â€Å"You are grounded for a month!† said mother. â€Å"Your allowance is also going to be deducted!† added father. I'm sorry, that's all I could afford to say while tearing up. Looking back at this though it is just two years back, I saw how much this incident had taught me. It taught me that honesty is always the best policy no matter what happens. Putting aside my studies just because it is not something which I prefer over sports do not benefit me in anyway. Cheating does not bring nor benefit me but only brings out more trouble. I also realized that my parents always wanted what's best for me. Giving me loads of education in terms of academic, sports, music and even computer lessons, I never knew it could be that useful in building up a strong character and confidence in me. Most importantly my future, in who I want to be and what would make them proud. The lessons I learned from this incident has enriched my life and made it much more meaningful in which I promise to strive in studies and also sports. As saying goes, it's always never too late.